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When the man's mammary gland is enlarged, it is also referred to as gynecomastia. This can be a symptom of a whole range of illnesses. Gynecomastia, the often asymmetric, sometimes painful enlargement of the mammary gland in men, can be extremely stressful for those affected.
The mammary glands and everything related to this topic is not at all a purely narrowly female sphere. The mammary glands of many men due to various hormonal disorders, the use of certain drugs or the presence of a tumor are significantly increased. This causes (or increases) dissatisfaction with oneself and interferes in everyday life. The name of this problem is gynecomastia.
Gynecomastia can be caused by various endocrinopathies: Klinefelter syndrome, testicular feminization, Reifenstein syndrome, castration and hypothyroidism, testicular tumors (the appearance of Leydig cells), choriocarcinoma, pituitary and adrenal tumors. Gynecomastia can be a tumor syndrome in bronchial cancer. It also occurs with cirrhosis, dystrophy from starvation, leprosy. It should also be noted the occurrence of gynecomastia in men who in the past were actively involved in sports with the subsequent abrupt cessation of classes. In the latter cases, gynecomastia can occur from a year to tens of years without causing complications. Breast growth in such cases is not a clinical danger. During puberty, estradiol levels increase faster than testosterone levels. This leads to elevated estrogen levels in relation to androgen, which can cause gynecomastia.
Differential diagnosis of gynecomastia is not difficult. Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the mammary glands. Therefore, the main differential diagnosis is reduced to the exclusion of breast cancer. But breast cancer in men is quite rare. To do this, produce a puncture formation followed by a study of the cellular composition. It is also possible to perform histological examination on the fact of removal of the mammary glands in order to convince that it was gynecomastia, and not cancer.
The operation can be performed under local or general anesthesia.
For local anesthesia solution of lidocaine is used, which is injected into the mammary gland and into the surrounding subcutaneous fat. This option of anesthesia is suitable for patients who want to have surgery without hospitalization.
Short-term sedation in combination with local anesthesia. During the operation, the patient is asleep, but additionally he is given local anesthesia with a lidocaine solution. After surgery, it takes about 2-3 hours to spend in the ward, and then the patient can be discharged.
General anesthesia is necessary for patients who are planning to remove gynecomastia of large volumes, as well as with lipomastia for liposuction with a lift of the nipple-areolar complex. With this type of anesthesia, hospitalization for 1-2 days is required.
Our patients have practically no big fears before surgery. In most cases, liposuction is performed and excess breast tissue is surgically removed. Therefore, most often people ask questions about scars after surgery: how do postoperative wounds heal and what scars remain after that. I can assure you that the scar remains minimal. In addition, over time, the scar fades and becomes almost invisible.