Pulmonary Cystic Fibrosis: The Best Therapies
Cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic mucus congestion. Other organs such as the liver or pancreas are also affected and are literally blocked. In addition to respiratory problems threaten digestive disorders and underweight.
Cause of Germany's most common metabolic disease, which is also called cystic fibrosis, is a congenital gene defect. It leads to dysfunction of the mucous glands and affects the lungs particularly badly. Because of frequent infections, they lose their performance over the years. However, thanks to state-of-the-art therapies, sufferers can count on ever-increasing life expectancy: children born today with hereditary disease have the opportunity to reach the age of 50. However, the causes of cystic fibrosis can not be treated, but their symptoms.
Ingredients for oral and inhalation release the mucus and facilitate coughing. Because CF patients are particularly prone to respiratory infections, they often need to take antibiotics. Because their pancreas is also clogged, patients often lack enzymes that are important for digestion. These can be taken in tablet form. New types of drugs are still under development, which will enable a "repair" of the genetic defect and thus perhaps a complete cure.
The hand is an effective remedy: both pressure and tapping on the chest as well as shaking the patient promote the drainage of mucus. Experts talk about "drainage", which some patients can follow on their own, as well as breathing therapy devices that are used under the guidance of the doctor, and special gymnastic exercises that clear the mucus from the airways and promote fitness.
Because the lung tissue is damaged, it is increasingly difficult for patients to breathe independently. Many need an oxygen device. In advanced cases, organ transplantation is possible.
Smoke-free by steam?
For people who want to quit smoking, e-cigarettes do not "Gentle exit" from the addiction. This is what the German Society for Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP).
Vapor can help, temporarily refrain from tobacco products. But it also leads to a new dependence, the consequences of which experts still can not accurately estimate. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation are also topics at the 60th Congress of the DGP, the from March 13th to 16th, 2019 in Munich.
A recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) on 886 smokers examined whether e-cigarettes help with smoking cessation better than nicotine replacement products such as chewing gum or plaster. The authors came to the conclusion that the e-cigarette is the more successful approach: after one year of steaming twice as many study participants were abstinent as with nicotine gum and Co.
Professor med. Stefan Andreas, Head of the Pulmonary Clinic Immenhausen near Goettingen, comments this conclusion: "Who smokes e-cigarette is by no means abstinent - he just replaces one dependence with another."
So the results show that 80 percent of e-cigarette smokers who had succeeded on tobacco cigarettes to abstain from inhaling e-cigarettes regularly after one year. Only 9 percent of those who used patches and Co. took one year to use these products later.
The consequences of the long-term consumption of e-cigarettes, is not yet foreseeable today Andreas emphasizes: "Since the e-cigarette has only been on the market for a few years, there is no long-term studies on their health effects. It took 50 years to study the effects of tobacco smoking."
However, animal studies and some studies in humans show that the vapor is the tissue in the bronchi Page 2/4 and alveoli abnormally altered.
Many other studies show that smoking cessation with e-cigarettes increases the chances of actually quit smoking, even reduce it. After a meta-analysis of 38 studies, the likelihood of successful smoking weaning was with e-cigarettes around 28 percent lower than without e-cigarettes. Lots of smokers who switch to the e-cigarette, return in the long term to the tobacco cigarette back.
The study in the NEJM was accompanied by two editorials. In both became strict regulations required for the sale and marketing of e-cigarettes. German experts have long called for a ban on the advertising of tobacco products to protect young people, which also includes e-cigarettes. Also the European Respiratory Society warns in a recent report that the benefits of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation is not occupied and health damages are by no means excluded can.
"We have to realize that the tobacco companies are expanding their market with the e-cigarette have to attract a larger audience," explains Andreas. "closing the industry has no interest in selling it through successful smoking cessation reduce."
The pulmonologist calls for professional weaning programs for smokers, which are available free of charge and nationwide. Of that there would be far too few in Germany.
On the possible consequences of the e-cigarette and healthy ways of cessation of smoking Andreas speaks at a press conference which took place on 14 March 2019 as part of the 60th DGP Congress in Munich. Experts will present at the symposium also successful smoking cessation strategies.