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A corneal curvature is when the cornea is not uniformly curved. This anomaly is also called "astigmatism." The medical term is "astigmatism", which comes from the Greek and means something like "pointlessness". These terms already indicate the effect on vision of astigmatism.
Normally, the cornea, together with the lens of the eye, causes the parallel incident light rays to focus and focus on a single point of the retina (focus). As a result, sharp vision is possible.
However, when the cornea is bent, the cornea is unevenly curved, which means that the light can not be properly bundled. In some places, incident light rays are focused more tightly than others. They do not unite on the retina in the sequence in a single point: on the retina is not a single clear point displayed - the view is blurred.
In many cases, astigmatism is congenital. It is occasionally hereditary - the astigmatism then shows up in several family members. An example of congenital astigmatism is the so-called keratoglobus, in which the cornea is arched and thinned forward.
In addition to visual aids, it is also possible to have a corneal curvature lasered. The hot light beam removes the bumps in the cornea and thus creates a uniform surface. Whether a laser procedure comes into question, the ophthalmologist must decide on a case-by-case basis.
Another operative treatment approach is the correction of astigmatism by a new lens. The cornea is left as it is, instead the eye lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens (intraocular lens). It is shaped to balance astigmatism as best it can. This procedure is usually used only with a pronounced astigmatism.