In medical practice the narrowing of vessels is called "stenosis". It can be provoked by atherosclerosis. Depending on the type of vessel with a narrowing, the following complications may develop:
- Heart ischemia;
- Disturbed blood circulation in the brain;
- Atherosclerosis of legs.
At the initial stage, a slight contraction may not affect a person's health. However, when later the stenosis starts to affect more than half of the vessel, patient starts to feel the lack of oxygen in the tissues. In this case, conservative treatment methods become useless: doctors resort to vascular surgery.
Stenting of vessels and its application in Germany
One of the surgical methods practiced in Germany, that is used to fight the constriction of vessels, is stenting. It is one of the endovascular methods that is used to treat atherosclerosis with the minimal surgical intervention.
During the stenting of vessels a special catheter is introduced through a skin incision. At the end of the catheter there is a balloon: it gets inflated and expands the walls of the vessels. In order to preserve the wide lumen of the vessel, a special frame called stent is placed inside.
The stenting of vessels is used in the following cases:
- In coronary heart disease;
- In myocardial infarction.
These two reasons are closely related. The blood supply of the myocardium is disturbed, therefore, the heart does not get enough oxygen. Thus begins the blood starvation of the heart muscle, and the patient may well have a myocardial infarction. The main cause of ischemia are cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries. During the acute period of the myocardial infarction a surgery should be performed within the first 6 hours. In this case it is possible to avoid further complications.
Stenting of vessels in atherosclerosis of lower limbs
It is the least traumatic and at the same time the most effective way to treat vascular diseases of the legs. In case of malperfusion patient may feel pain in the waist, thighs, feet or lower leg.
Stenting of vessels in atherosclerosis of carotid artery
The lumen of vessels is restored with the help of a minimally invasive intervention. Carotid artery plays a big role in the blood supply of the brain. The operation makes it possible to install not only stents, but also special filters that do not interfere with the passage of blood, but protect small vessels from blockage.
Coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty
Approximately six months after the surgery there may be a risk of a repeated vascular stenosis. Thus, stenting of vessels can be performed together with the angioplasty.
Stenting of vessels after coronary bypass
10-15 years after the installation of a shunt stenting may be performed. Thus, stenting of vessels can be used instead of a repeated bypass surgery.