The basis of the reproductive system of a woman in reproductive age is the proper interaction within the chain hypothalamus - pituitary - ovary, which ensures the
- proper maturation of an egg
- structural changes in endometrium during the cycle for normal implantation of the embryo
- the correct functioning of the epithelium in fallopian tubes for the promotion of an egg into the uterus
Hypothalamic part of the brain is in charge of the menstrual cycle regulation through releasing special hormones. Hypоthalamus and pituitary control the operation of reproductive organs and produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH). Under the influence of these substances (FSH, LH and prolactin) the ovaries are capable of egg maturation and ovulation. In case of endocrine imbalance (hypothalamic dysfunction) severe pathology such as amenorrhea (no menses or ovulation) may occur, which is a barrier for pregnancy.
The causes of the hypothalamic-pituitary problem can be physical or mental stress, infections (meningitis, encephalitis), nose and throat diseases (tonsillitis, sinusitis), trauma, sleep deprivation, starvation. All these factors cause the problems of hormone secretion.
Such a dysfunction is characterized with the following symptoms:
- luteal phase insufficiency,
- anovulation (lack of ovulation)
- intensive production of ovarian androgens (testosterone).
Increased secretion of estrogen and high levels of prolactin and gonadotropin in the blood disturbs the normal ovarian function. Lack of estrogen and FSH leads to insufficient follicle growth, anovulation and thus to infertility. Pregnancy occurs only in 2% of patients with hypothalamic dysfunction. High levels of androgens results in suppression of ovulation and can cause hirsutism (increased hair growth), acne (acne), anovulation, the absence of menstruation.
This syndrome is characterized with a decrease in the level of hormones of the hypothalamus, leading to hypomenstrual syndrome. Due to hypоthalamic problem, ovaries don’t work properly. Lack of ovulation makes pregnancy impossible.
In women with hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency syndrome there can be observed uterus or cervix malformations, elongated tube, thin, convoluted, narrow vagina. Such a pathological condition is classified as physiological infertility. Management of hypothalamic insufficiency is conducted depending on the nature and localization of the pathological process. The gynecologists regularly monitor the amount of sex hormones (estrogen) in blood and urine and adjust the therapy in an individual and holistic way.
It is important to know: Endocrine dysfunction therapy in 98% of all therapy cases in Germany ends up in healthy pregnancy during the next 6 months.
The German fertility centers exercise interdisciplinary approach in medical managing of hypothalamic disorder syndrome and amenorrhea. It is important not only to eliminate symptoms, but also to highlight the root cause of hormone disorders. In women with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and amenorrhea the type of therapy depends on the level of estrogen in the blood test. In case of high levels of prolactin in the blood, prolactin level stabilization should be performed before the hormonal therapy.
In case of ovulation problems or disrupted estrogen and gonadotropin secretion, treatment should begin as soon as possible. In chronic anovulation, resistant primary or secondary amenorrhea, treatment may require not only elimination of the disorder of the endocrine glands, but also surgical or conservative correction of the fallopian tubes, endometrial and cervical mucus properties. These disorders develop due to long-term hormonal imbalance.
Gonadotropin substances proved to be indispensable in the treatment of infertility. Due to gonadotropin injections specialists are able to achieve the growth of several follicles in one menstrual cycle and thereby dramatically increase the chance of pregnancy without any risk.
German Medical Group: Your medical partner for solving endocrine fertility problems!
The appointment with a specialist at German reproductive center is going to be very detailed. If you decide for diagnosis or therapy at one of the German fertility centers, we will help you to get prepared for this important step. Initial consultation of international patients concerning costs and methods of treatment in Germany can occur via Skype or per telephone. We would be glad to find the best German, Swiss or Austrian fertility center for you, so that you could solve your health problem without risk or side effects as soon as possible.