The nature of endometriosis is still unclear, though, there several popular theories why it happens.
One of the named possible causes is retrograde menstruation, which is a condition when menstrual blood including particles of uterus lining (enfometrium) does not embed outside completely during menstruation but stay in reproductive organs (ovaries, fallopian tubes) and start growing into endometrial patches. It also can flow into abdominal via fallopian tubes and implant there. The only fault of this theory, it could not explain endometriosis in those women who had hysterectomy.
Another explanation is family history. If woman have any of female relatives as mother or sister diagnosed with such a condition the risk of endometriosis is higher.
It is also noticed that probability of disease also depends on ethnicity. While in African-Caribbean women the risk is lower, in Asian patients it opposite higher than in white women.
Cells of Endometrium in Blood and Lymph
It is not proved but some researches consider that cells of endometrium could permeate into blood and lymph and travel trough the body. It is maybe not very convincing but with this theory is possible to explain why rarely endometrial implants are found in such remote parts as brain or eye.
Another theory suggests that peritoneal cells could convert into endometrial tissues due to hormonal or immune factors.
It is considered that during such kinds of surgery as hysterectomy endometrial cells could transplant to the incision.
Immune System Disorders
It is believed that immune system problems could be a proper ground for development of endometriosis. Many women with the condition have low immunity.
Some scientists consider that among the possible reasons of endometriosis can be presence certain toxins in environment as dioxins affecting immune system. Currently, it is proved on animal but not certainly known about humans.
Other Risks Increasing Danger of Endometrial Disease
Among the other condition that could not be definitely proved as the cause of endometriosis but give evidence of accompanying factors you could name the following:
- Age 30-40
- Never giving birth
- Menstrual cycles shorter than 28 days
- Long menstruation period
- High level of estrogen in the body
- Low body mass index
- Early age of a first menstruation
- Later menopause
- Uterine abnormality and pelvic infection
What Causes Endometriosis Pain?
You could spend a lot of words explaining what is endometriosis – which is spreading of inner uterus lining outside the womb – but for those who have the disease, it could be named on one word – ‘pain’.
Severe pain accompanies you during your periods, when having sex; sometimes it could appear in the low back, bowel, bladder and rectum. But what is the nature of that pain which cause so much suffering to the woman.
The pain happens due to adhesions that appear in the spots of normal and implanted endometrial tissues. Growing, they cause tension giving pain which become especially severe during physical movement, e.g. while having sexual intercourse.
What Causes Bleeding?
One of the common symptoms of endometriosis at advanced stages is abnormal bleeding. ‘Abnormal’ means different from cyclical menstrual bleeding in frequency and longitude. Here is some possible reasons for appearing of abnormal bleeding:
- Ovarian cysts (so called chocolate cysts) when become too large create pressure to the ovary and produce abnormal bleeding which is, as rule, darker than normal menstrual blood.
- Adhesions in ovaries cause encasing of ovary into endometrial tissue that creates irritation on it. Then, ovary tried to escape creating cyst which could bleed.
- Sometimes the reason of bleeding can be not endometriosis itself but hormonal drugs used for it treatment. You always should be aware of possible side effects and report to your doctor.
What Causes Endometrial Cancer?
There is no any certain opinion what can cause endometrial cancer but some risks factors are know:
- Hormonal misbalance between two main female hormones estrogen and progesterone. It is important to understand that not level of hormone but its fluctuation could create risk condition.
- Never having a child. Women who have never been pregnant have higher risk of cancer.
- Longer childbearing period. As earlier you periods start and later finish more risk of cancer you have due to longer exposure of you endometrium to estrogen.
- Older age. The risk of malignant tumor increases in older age.
- Hormonal therapy for breast cancer. If you are taking tamoxifen, it can increase the risk.
- Obesity. Overweight can affect hormonal balance of the body.
Endometriosis Treatment in Germany
If you have permanent pelvic pain and cyclical abnormal bleeding you should see a doctor without delay as you, probably, have endometrial disease. In German gynecological clinics you will find everything for precise diagnostics and treatment with highly specialized professional. Pain is not normal living condition, book an appointment via GMG to find relieve.