Cardiothoracic surgery is related to organs of the chest such as the heart, esophagus, lungs and others. Cardiothoracic surgery group is includes general thoracic surgeon, cardiothoracic surgeon, cardiovascular surgeon, congenital heart surgeon. Mainly cardiothoracic operations are made in cardiologic centers but sometimes it is different, so please check carefully what treatment you need before applying to the procedure in one of German clinics.
Coronary artery disease. Associated operations are:
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). Open heart operation to give the blood flow not through diseased artery but via created bypass.
- Coronary angioplasty. Both diagnostic and surgical treatment. Often used to introduce a stent (implant) into coronary artery to provide blood supply to the heart. Minimally invasive method.
Blockages and leaking in the heart valves:
- Aortic valve replacement.
- Mitral valve replacement.
Often valve replacement operation could be done together with GABG in open heart surgery.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm is enlargement or ballooning of coronary artery. It could be treated in open surgery or with endoscopic method which depends on the size of bulged aorta.
Aortic Dissection is another disease related to aorta which is splitting of aorta. The blood starts leaking between the layers causing numerous problems. Also could be treated in open heart operation or with minimally invasive technique.
Atrial fibrillation is dysfunction of heart rhythm, which becomes too rapid and irregular. For normalization of the heart beating, ablation of atrial fibrillation is used. Ablation is destroying unwanted tissues with radiofrequency method or cryothermic energy.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a disease in which blood could flows directly between upper chambers as they are not separated with a wall as it should be. It is possible to correct the defect as following:
- Surgical ASD closer;
- Percutaneous ASD closure;
- Catheter procedure (minimally invasive).
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect of the heart wall dividing left and right ventricles (large chambers), which is open. The ways of correction are as below:
- Surgery of many different types;
- Transcatheter closure.
Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital narrowing of the aorta which is normally present in aortic arch. The surgical resection is performed if a condition is complicated with arterial hypertension. Otherwise, conservative methods are recommended.
Hypoplastic left/right heart syndrome is a congenital disease in which left or right heart underdeveloped, that means it is extremely smaller and could not function normally. It is a mortal condition requiring reconstructive surgery or, even, complete transplantation. The plan of operation is always individualized.
Transposition of the great arteries it is congenital defect characterizes with the great vessels abnormally spatially located, which is treated by means of the arterial switch operation.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most complex congenital disorder involving the four birth defects.
Lung cancer is a subject of general thoracic surgery as well as oncologic surgery. The surgery is more effective in earlier stages.
Esophageal cancer is treated with surgery and, in some cases, esophagus could be removed completely and replaced with implant. In other cases, the surgery could be combined with radiotherapy.
Severe lung emphysema. Emphysema is a lesion of pulmonary alveolus which is a loss of elasticity and expanding a lung surface. As alveolus support a gas exchange in the lungs, emphysema causes a smaller volume of exchange. Ling volume reduction surgery allows to the rest of the lung and supporting muscles to work more effective.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Hiatal hernia. GERD is a chronic burning of esophagus mucosa with stomach acid reflux from the stomach, and hiatal hernia is an evagination of gastric fundus (upper part) of stomach to thorax. The both of them could be treated in one procedure name of Nissen fundoplication, which is laparoscopic surgery. The fundus is wrapped around esophagus and this prevents stomach acid from flowing into esophagus.
Swallowing disorders, such as achalasia. At achalasia smooth muscles fibers are not able to relax and sphincter does not open when needed, that cause difficulties when swallowing. Heller myotomy can be used to cure this problem. The muscles of lower esophageal sphincter are cut, and that allow relaxing sphincter and let the food come into the stomach.
All of the above operations could be performed in different divisions but in some clinics with comprehensive approach it is possible to have all the specialists together if needed. Depending on your needs you can choose a clinic in Germany providing maximum of care to the patient and giving different treatment in one complex program.